How do you do? It has been a long time eyh? Well, I want to share with you on this one subject. I took this subject during my 7th term or 8th term, I am sorry, I do not really remember. Sorry. Well, the subject was Contrastive Analysis. To be honest, I do love learning it, still, I am glancing and reading the book, even though, I am not taking any courses on language now. This was the first progress test on the subject.
Let me give you the questions and the answer *my answers.
1. What is Error Analysis?
The meaning of Error Analysis is the study of types and causes of errors. Meaning here, learning error analysis is able to analyse the error committed by the speakers or writers. For example, if a Spanish speaker uttered a sentence which we know has error, "She comed yesterday". It means here, we can analysed the types of errors and also the causes of error. As you can see in the example given, there is no 'comed' word and it is wrong and it is under Intralingual (the causes) is Ignorance of Rules. Therefore, by learning Error Analysis we can detect the errors committed by the speakers and writers.
*it anyone's game actually.
2. What is the major defect of Contrastive Analysis?
Contrastive Analysis claims that all errors made in learning the Second Language could be attributed to interference by the first language. It is seen that the theory is challenged for that many errors predicted by Contrastive Analysis is not observed in learner's language. Some errors made by learners were not through the interference of the first language. Some of them, not all. In Contrastive Analysis, we have to analyse the two value languages. It means here languages have its own systems. Therefore, we will have hard time analysing the mistakes because of the language systems. It is also because of the transfer of first language in learning the second language.
3. Give THREE reasons why the second language learners' errors are significant.
a. They ( the Second Language learners) served as devices by which the learners discovered the rules of the target language.
b. The Second Language learners provided the researchers with evidence of how the language was learned.
c. They provided the researchers with information about how much the learners have learned.
4. Explain briefly the FOUR steps of Error Analysis.
a. Data Collection
In Analysing the errors, for the first step, we must collect the data. In data collection, we can collect both ways, either written form or verbal form (speaking). We can collect the data from random respondents. It is also concern with the field that we want to study. It depends on the Target Language and also the Native Language.
b. Error Identification
After we collect the data, we need to actually identify the errors committed in speaking or written forms. In identifying the errors, we need to have the competency in the Target Language for example understand or master the grammar, morphology, syntax, lexical and so forth. For example, back to the example that I used in the question before, "She comed yesterday". We can easily identify the error straight away because we know the correct form of the sentence. *If only we have good understanding on the grammar and also the technical terms. The speaker or writer committed intralanguage error which means he/she must have been influenced by the Rules of Target Language. The correct form is "She came yesterday".
c. Error Description
After we identify the errors, we need to describe the errors. We need to put the error in the correct item. As in the above example "She comed yesterday", the writer/speaker has committed the error in tenses. He/she made error might because of his/her background but this intralanguage error, which means he/she has been influenced by the rules of Target Language ( TL ).
d. Data Explanation
After done with all the three steps above, we need to do is data explanation. In explaining the data, we need to consider all of our own knowledge that we mastered in the target language. We need to include the source, the causes of errors committed by the speakers or writers. We also need to add on whether the speakers or writers committed what type of errors (interlanguage errors, intralanguage errors, avoidance or ignorance).
5. According to Richards (1974), intralingual and developmental errors are caused by several factors. Explain, with TWO examples, the ignorance of rule restrictions factor.
The ignorance of rule restrictions factor is when the speakers or writers or both ignored the rule restrictions in the target language. The speaker, or writers or both tend to omit the rules of the Target Language. As for the example, in the sentence, "I eating'. In the sentence, we all understand the meaning of the sentence but the speakers or writers or both have OMIT/IGNORED the morpheme 'am'. He or she/ they have ignored the rule restrictions factor. Those who have the basic grammar will know about the error committed but for those who do not obtain the knowledge about the basic grammar of English language would easily concluded that the sentence 'I eating' is correct because they understood the meaning of the sentence but the truth is, its wrong. 'I' must have 'am' because it is always and forever like that. So in 'He does...', we cannot omit or change the system to 'I is ______ .' It can not be like that. Ignorance of rule restrictions under intralingual (types of errors).
The second example would be 'I comed yesterday'. Here, the error occurred is ignorance or rule restrictions. Even though, we know the meaning but the omitter ignored the rules of tenses. In English (Target Language), it is a tense (time) language, where we need to follow the rules of tenses. There are three major tenses, past tense, present tense and future tense. Therefore, to utter such sentence like 'I comed yesterday' is wrong because there is another form of (past tense) the word 'came' to show past tense because it is the rule. If we do not use the rules/system which have/has been recognised for so long, we can assume that comitters have reached the level we called 'fossilised'.
Done, that is all! This subject was taught by Dr Kamariah. Thanks Dr.
p/s: Watching Twilight.